of the joint programming process and the JPIs

Joint Programming has been introduced by the European Commission (EC) as a new approach to resolve the lack of coordination between national research programme implementation. Its objectives are to reduce fragmentation, unnecessary duplication and a lack of critical mass. Alignment of national research programmes is thus part of creating the European Research Area (ERA), a concept launched by the EC in 2000. The joint programming process (JPP) and the Joint Programming Initiatives (JPIs) launched under this concept, serve as complementary to coordination schemes such as ERA-NETs and the Article 185 Initiatives. The European Joint Programme Cofunds are a larger scale coordination scheme.